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"Facing one defeat after another, losing territory and watching their nation dwindle, they built up their industrial strength to unprecedented heights and used it to wage one final battle against the world."
Albert Genette[1]

The Belkan War (ベルカ戦争)[2] was a large-scale, albeit brief, Strangereal conflict in early 1995. Belka waged war against the Osean Federation and a number of former Belkan territories, including the Republic of Ustio. Belka's aim was to re-annex the territory it had lost during its economic crisis. Ustio's mercenary squadron Galm Team, led by ace pilot Cipher, earned special recognition during the conflict.

The war officially began on March 25, 1995 with Belka's invasion of Osean and Ustio lands. Belka's initial invasion tactic was a Belkan Air Force-led blitz campaign that quickly overwhelmed its targets. One week later, most of the invaded countries created a coalition force known as the Allied Forces and initiated a counterattack.[3] The Allied Forces's Offensive Campaign No. 4101 quickly liberated Ustio and returned all territories to their pre-war status.[4]

The Allied Forces then received intelligence that Belka was developing mass retaliation weapons.[5] Working with this information, they invaded South Belka, destroyed the Excalibur laser defense weapon,[6] and marched on North Belka. In a desperate attempt to prevent them from entering North Belka, the Belkan military detonated seven nuclear weapons, killing over 12,000 civilians.[7] The war abruptly ended and both sides signed a peace treaty in Lumen on June 20, 1995.[8]

Many Belkan and Allied military elements that sought a "perfect world without restrictions or wars"[9] created a rogue organization called A World With No Boundaries. They emerged six months after the official cessation of hostilities and took control of the Avalon Dam facility in North Belka. The group attempted to launch a V2 missile to cause mass destruction on the continent, but the Allied Forces thwarted their plans.[10]

The Belkan War's impact on the world was powerful and long-lasting. The Union of Yuktobanian Republics came to the Osean Federation's aid in the war, which began a path of reconciliation to end their Cold War. The nuclear attacks immediately triggered non-proliferation efforts worldwide. Belka's era as a strong, militaristic country with a powerful air force had come to an end, though rogue elements later caused the outbreaks of the Circum-Pacific War and Lighthouse War.


Belkan expansion

From the middle of the 20th century, Belka had become a powerful industrialized nation after the two wars it had previously waged with the Osean Federation - the Osean War and an unnamed conflict in the 1940s -, having a robust indigenous aircraft industry and a nuclear weapons arsenal. Motives of expansion and nationalism led it to clash with eastern Osea countries over territorial and self-determination issues in the 1970s, a situation that would lead to the invasion and annexation of Recta in said decade after the Rectan War, causing Belka to become a federal state between the war and the 1980s.[11]

The Belkan Army, influenced by the ongoing Cold War, launched a series of black projects concerning advanced battlefield technology and weapons of mass destruction to deter or act during a foreign invasion, most of which were developed by the South Belka Munitions Factory. The three main programs were the Excalibur anti-ballistic missile laser, the XB-0 Hresvelgr heavy command cruiser and Project Pendragon, which created the V2 multiple independent reentry vehicle and oversaw the scientific application of directed energy weapons in warfare under the direction of Anton Kupchenko. The massive allocation of funds to the national military budget caused the government to relocate political power to eastern Belkan states and order the withdrawal of its republics' militaries to their home countries.[12]

Economic crisis

Contrary to the intentions of the Belkan military, the black projects had the unforeseen consequence of unleashing an economic recession that rapidly engulfed the Federation. Within two years of Project Pendragon's start in 1985, the crisis grew to such a point that the National Assembly sought to contain it by amending the national federal law, thus allowing portions of the country to break off as independent countries. The process began on December 8 of 1987, providing the foundation for the creation of two new nations, eastern Gebet on February 12, 1988 and southern Ustio on May 12,[3] whose final boundaries and political structure would not be finalized until December 16 of 1991.[12]

The aftermath of the division was followed by the establishment of cordial relations between Belka and Osea. However, the true intentions of Oured behind the rapproachement were to verify the rumors of mineral resources existing within Ustio's territory, which drove them to agitate and back the ongoing internal separatist movements in Belka after its birth.[12][13] On August 21 of 1991, Belka sold a part of North Belka to neighboring FATO and portions of the east to oriental countries. That same date, the government agreed to sell the Five Great Lakes and the Hunan Islands to Oured despite historical tensions over the territories, after it decided that the subsequent dividend rate would significantly benefit it. The worsening economic situation led to nationwide riots from mid-August protesting the lack of solutions to the recession.[13]

At some point in 1991, Oured and Dinsmark jointly formed the Five Great Lakes Development Corporation business group, which was eventually closed between 1 and 3 September as a result of intentional underfunding and fabricated financial forecast reports from Osea in an attempt to obtain the lands. The collapse of the corporation unraveled a political scandal that was rapidly denounced by the Democratic Liberal Party, the largest opposition party in the country. Crowds of over 40,000 people, DLP supporters and civilians alike, marched against the National Assembly demanding the immediate removal of the ruling cabinet amidst increased sentiments of hatred against Osea and a perceived weakness against Oured and its independent countries.[13]

In response to the Five Great Lakes crisis, the Assembly called for an emergency election scheduled for December 1991. The DLP won a large majority of the seats, eventually leading to their ascension to power in 1992 with Waldemarr Rald assuming control of the country. Over the next four years, the DLP reformed Belka's government and removed the separation of powers among different branches, turning the country in an authoritarian regime. Military spending reached new heights, including the development of V2.

The new government assumed an ultranationalist stance against its former allies, bolstering its military and economy while searching for ways to terminate the economic crisis. Tensions with the independent territories were high, leading to border skirmishes with the Ustio Air Force.[14] The Supreme Court of Belka, under the DLP, ruled that the Federal Law Review was unconstitutional. As a result, the independence of the territories formerly owned by Belka was ruled invalid. The rule furthered tensions with Ustio, Recta and Gebet, which dismissed the Supreme Court's rule as illegal.

Outbreak of war


In March 1995, Belka discovered a major source of natural resources and minerals in the southern Ustio border, a region denominated "Area B7R". Believing that it was the solution to Belka's troubles, Rald declared war on Osea and its former territories, launching a massive assault directed by the Belkan Air Force.

The first battle of the war was a skirmish between the Indigo Squadron and FATO's 122nd Tactical Fighter Squadron, which led to the latter's destruction.[12] Two days later, the city of Model in the Gebet-Belka border fell to Belkan troops. Within the first week of hostilities, much of Ustio had fallen to the Belkan Army after a major battle in Monte Rosa between the BAF and the Ustio Air Force on March 30.[12]

Various regions in east Osea came under attack, including the cities of Rutherford, Heierlark and Wesson, the latter of which was protected by a radar network destroyed during the invasion. The Belkan army reached as far as north Sapin, where the region of Arlon and the Futuro Canal were used as supply routes. The kingdom rose in arms against the invasion, but suffered the loss of its 3rd Naval Fleet to BAF attacks.[15]

Ustio front

The 66th Air Force Unit over Valais.

After the incident at Monte Rosa, much of Ustio's military had been greatly weakened, forcing the survivors to seek refuge at Valais Air Base in the eastern Tyrann Mountains near the Rectan border. To cope with the losses, its commanders were forced to hire foreign mercenaries to bolster their air force. As a result, the 6th Air Division, which had been destroyed in the Belkan onslaught, was rebuilt as a mercenary force.[12]

On April 1, Osea contacted Ustio with the intention of establishing a military alliance under the banner of the "Allied Forces", agreeing to aid under the terms of a nonaggression treaty by the Assembly of Nations. The following day, the Belkan Air Force launched a bombing attack on Valais, causing various mercenaries and formal pilots to scramble for an interception. Ustio's high command paired one such pilot, the enigmatic Cipher, with Larry "Solo Wing Pixy" Foulke, to form the 66th Air Force Unit "Galm", which successfully repelled the attack. Two weeks later, on the 15th, Galm was deployed to liberate Arlon's Route 171, a highway used by Belka as a transport route, to facilitate the movement of ground troops.

Liberation of Ustio

Offensive Campaign No. 4101

The Rot Squadron pursuing Pixy over B7R.

On April 3, two days after the formation of the Allies, the Osean Army launched a counterattack against Belkan occupation forces on its own soil. After the emancipation of Sapin, the Osean Ministry of Defense formulated a plan to bolster their war efforts in the Ustio front. The plan, "Offensive Campaign No. 4101", involved the mobilization of the Osean Navy's 3rd Naval Fleet into Ustio, which agreed to collaborate.[16]

As a distraction, Cipher and Pixy were sent in April 20 on a "reconnaissance mission" over the disputed Area B7R, where they engaged several aircraft stationed there on patrol, causing enough commotion for the 3rd Fleet to enter the country unnoticed. The plot led to the intervention and defeat of an elite fighter squadron, an unexpected victory celebrated in Valais. The Belkan government covered up the incident, announcing that the squadron had scared Galm away from the border.[17]

The Osean plan was put into motion four days later when the Allies prepared to sanitize the Futuro Canal to allow the safe passage of the fleet. The attack on Futuro, which was divided into three main operations, saw the destruction of the local Belkan forces and their naval strength, including the aircraft carrier Njord. When the canal was cleared, the 3rd Fleet endured desperate aerial attacks from the Air Force before reaching Ustio. The occasion was the first combat deployment of the OFS Kestrel, with Captain Weeker at its command.

Liberation of Directus

Rioters celebrating in the streets of Directus.

Reinforced by the entry of the Third Fleet into the war, the Osean-Ustio forces continued their campaign against the Belkan army, pushing further south with the intention of freeing the capital city of Directus, preparations for the liberation of which were nearly complete two weeks after the emancipation of Futuro. On May 12, the Galm Team assisted the Osean army's 122nd Airborne Division in retaking the mountain town of Solis Ortus to establish a forward base in anticipation of the attack.

On the evening of the next day, aircraft and armored battalions besieged the city. The effort, named "Operation Constantine", saw widespread fighting between Allies and Belkan soldiers across the five sectors of the capital. With the aid of Cipher and Pixy, they were eventually able to defeat most of the occupation troops inside the town, leading to violent riots against the Belkans through the entire capital. As the Belkan defenders fell, the general in charge of the occupation troops in Ustio fled the Belkan headquarters on a helicopter but was killed as he escaped the capital.

The fighting eventually came to a halt as the city was taken by the Allied forces, causing surviving Belkan troops to look for ways to escape. The Gelb Squadron, overtaxed from constant operations, was sent to quell the operation, but arrived too late to make a difference, and were shot down by Galm over the city. A celebration was held in Valais Air Base for Cipher and Pixy, who were rewarded by Ustio's High Command with bottles of Chateau Boloise, a rare cabernet wine. The country returned to its pre-war ways, and joined Osea in their efforts against the Belkan Federation.[12]

Invasion of Belka

"The true nature of the war begins from this point forward. Accounts vary depending on the article and source. Everyone is a hero and a villain, and no one knows who's the victim and who's the aggressor. And what is "peace"? All questions commonly asked about any war in history."
Brett Thompson

Lines of defense

An abandoned fortress in Glatisant.

With the liberation of Ustio and Sapin, the Allied Forces prepared to invade Belka itself. At some point after the liberation of Ustio, they discovered the existence of the V2 and the Belkan nuclear weapons program, prompting them to launch an attack on the Hydrian Line, Belka's first line of defense, on May 17.

The battle spanned a large part of the 700-kilometer length of the Line, and saw the attack of the Glatisant border region under the pretext of a "nuclear weapons inspection", an explanation found laughable by Larry Foulke. Mountain bases and fortresses across the area were destroyed by Allied air strikes and the Hydrian Line fell, but no nuclear weapons were found. During the siege, the Belkan government authorized the use of the Excalibur system, which annihilated an Ustio squadron in Glatisant.

A MiG-29 attacking Excalibur.

On the 19th, a second campaign was launched to defeat the second Belkan line of defense at the Schayne Plains, which saw operations on multiple fronts to facilitate the entry of Osean air transports and refueling aircraft to the newly created front. The attack, which involved Galm once more, resulted in the aerial sanitization of the Plains and the fall of a Belkan air base. However, the operation saw the destruction of the cargo aircraft at the hands of Excalibur, which proceeded to kill many Allied pilots across the region. Cipher and Pixy narrowly survived the attack and returned to Valais, while Osea carried out an investigation on the incident.

The existence of Excalibur was soon discovered by the Allies, who attacked the region of Tauberg on the 23rd of May in order to destroy the weapon. The mission, overseen by Eagle Eye, saw the dispatching of the Crow Squadron by Osea, along with a KC-10 Extender tanker. Making their way through constant laser attacks, they defeated the weapon's defenses and destroyed its optical dome before it was split in half by Cipher, an act from which he gained much reputation. The fall of the "King's Sword" was recognized by Allied commanders, who expressed their gratitude to Galm.

Operation Battle-Axe

Cipher battling a Schwarze Team pilot

Following the destruction of Excalibur, there were indications that Belka was willing to come to the negotiation table and make a conditional surrender. However, early on the 28th of May, the Osean government publicly announced its permanent abrogation of the Assembly of Nations' non-aggression treaty and launched a surprise aerial attack on Area B7R that caught the Belkan Air Force off-guard, leading to what would become the largest air battle of the entire war, with over a hundred aircraft being destroyed.[12]

Despite their initial advantage, the Oseans suffered major losses in the ambush, which devolved into a massive dogfight. The situation prompted Valais to scramble the Galm Team under extraordinary circumstances, who arrived at the border by 12:00PM, at which point nearly 40% of the Osean aircraft had been lost. The two mercenaries joined the battle and engaged the Belkan forces, destroying several aircraft in the process, eventually leading the Allies to establishing air superiority over most of the Round Table.[12]

Prior to the battle, the Belkan ace Wolfgang Buchner found himself on the run after refusing an order by his superiors to release a nuclear weapon on an unspecified city on account of the worsening war situation, being pursued by the feared Schwarze Squadron, the air force's "deserter killers". Fleeing on his customized MiG-21bis, he arrived to B7R shortly after Galm's intervention, speeding past them in the direction to Osea. Their leader, Dominic Zubov, ordered his men to kill Cipher and Pixy, who shot them down in combat. Cipher's actions led him to become feared as the "Demon Lord of the Round Table".[12]

Despite losing his pursuers, Wolfgang was taken down by Ashley Bernitz, and ejected over the fields of B7R. After landing on the ground, he met Jack Bartlett, who had also been shot down by Bernitz, and accompanied him back to the Federation as a defector.[12][18]

Fall of Belka

Belkan retreat

Hoffnung during Operation Cannibal.

As South Belka fell to the Allied Forces, the Belkan Army moved north to Nord Belka and the Waldreich Mountains that served as a border to both regions. The cities of the south, which troops had used as defense lines for the "Fatherland", began to grow weary of the situation, eventually declaring themselves demilitarized and surrendering peacefully to Osea and the independent countries.

Despite their surrender, Northern and Central Belka were radicalized against the forces attacking them, and the Allies switched their focus to attacking the Federation's weapons industry, launching operations against arms factories owned by the government; one such episode was the bombing of the industrial city of Hoffnung on the night of June 1. The attack, which began as a precision attack on the local factories, devolved into a brutal saturation bombing that claimed the lives of soldiers and civilians alike.

Siege of Waldreich

Belkan V1 Detonations.png

On June 5, the Allied Forces launched an offensive attack against Belkan Army troops trapped at the Waldreich Mountains, a prelude of the planned invasion of North Belka. Other soldiers fled to the city of Sudentor, the last major standing city of the south, where they set up positions and armed themselves with equipment from the South Belka Munitions Factory. The siege continued until the next day when Osea prepared to invade the city.

The following day, the Belkan Air Force sent a squadron of bomber aircraft armed with nuclear weapons towards Ustio. The Crow and Galm squadrons, while heading to a set of coordinates over the Stier Castle in the Waldreich range, encountered the unit and set off to stop them from crossing the border, being joined by a team of Belkan pilots seeking to prevent them from releasing their weapons.

Both factions succeeded in halting the impending attack. However, the Belkan Army detonated seven V1 nuclear weapons across Waldreich, killing over 12,000 people and plunging the region into chaos. Larry Foulke, disillusioned by the carnage in Hoffnung, attempted to kill Cipher before breaking off and disappearing into the north. The Demon Lord fended off a team of Belkan aircraft before returning to base in Valais.

Belka's surrender

Aftermath of Waldreich

Cipher attacking insurgent forces in Anfang.

The catastrophe in Waldreich caused the Allied Forces to immediately halt their advance to Belka. Contact was rapidly established with Waldemarr Rald's administration, and terms were agreed for the surrender of the Federation. Preparations for the capitulation were underway within days of the disaster in South Belka.

Days later, its government underwent major changes in anticipation of the surrender and ordered its forces to cease all fighting, a command followed by a large majority of the Belkan Army. However, a more adamant faction refused to lay down their arms and set up positions in a base at Mount Schirm, where the XB-0 had once been developed. The region was the site of air strikes by the reformed Galm Team on June 13, whose second position had been assumed by former Crow pilot Patrick James Beckett, now Cipher's wingman.

Lumen ceremony

The capitulation took place on the evening June 19, 1995 in a formal ceremony at the South Belkan city of Lumen. During the event, a force of mercenaries from Osea and Ustio, including Galm, flew to Nord Belka to carry out Operation Broom, a secret mission to suppress a rebel force in the coastal town of Anfang, in the vicinity of Dinsmark. The ceremony, which was televised by reporters from across the world, greatly favored the Allied Forces, yet Waldemarr was allowed to retain his position in the government of the newly born Principality, having lost South Belka to Osea.

A World With No Boundaries uprising

"A World With No Boundaries aligns itself with no country. We are humanity's ideal army."
Anthony Palmer, Sorcerer Squadron leader.

Belkan coup

The XB-0 Hresvelgr over Waldreich.

After the signing of the Treaty of Lumen, stability returned to the Osean continent, with no armed action taking place from either Belka or the Allied Forces' countries. For the next six months, peace had returned to Osea, and the Galm Team remained inoperational at Valais Air Base.

The situation of the war led Belkan Air Force pilot Anton Kupchenko, who had disappeared with his Gault Squadron from the frontlines at the start of the war, to form A World With No Boundaries, a renegade army formed by soldiers and pilots from Osea, Sapin, Yuktobania and Belka itself that believed in a world free of politics, which they thought were the ultimate cause of warfare. Having been involved with Project Pendragon, he facilitated their access to the former federation's pre-war experimental technologies.

Cipher attacking the Hresvelgr.

On December 25, Belkan Army officers involved with A World With No Boundaries launched a coup d'état against the new government, and the organization simultaneously attacked Lumen with the hijacked XB-0 Hresvelgr with the aid of fighter escorts. The heavy command cruiser then travelled to east Ustio and attacked Valais as they prepared to scramble Galm to the bombarded city.

Galm narrowly avoided being caught by the gunship's bombing run, and took off in pursuit of the plane after the air strike. Cipher and Beckett intercepted the Hresvelgr over the Waldreich Mountains as it tried to flee to Nord Belka, and confronted its escorts, including the Sapinish Espada Squadron. They destroyed all fighters accompanying the ship and severely damaged it before attacking its cockpit, causing it and its occupants to plunge into the mountain range, where it disappeared in a giant explosion.

After the destruction of the ship, Larry Foulke, who had joined the coup forces, briefly flew over the crash site to deliver an encrypted message to Galm before vanishing. The message, which read "Yo, buddy, still alive?", was received and read by PJ, who reacted with shock after discovering its contents.

King in Avalon

A World With No Boundaries set up their headquarters in Avalon Dam, a secret V2 launch facility in Nord Belka's Mund Valley. A single V2 missile, which Kupchenko had helped develop under Project Pendragon, was seized by the coup forces, which they planned to launch in an attempt to strike major global cities to plunge the world into chaos. Their intentions were discovered by the Allied Forces through an investigation carried out after the Belkan coup and immediately mobilized to prevent their plans from taking place.

On December 31, the air forces of Ustio and Osea moved to Belka to halt the impending launch. Early that day, the Galm Team launched from Valais and traveled to Area B7R, from which they would fly directly to Mund Valley. However, they were intercepted by Kupchenko and his men from Gault, who intended to stop them from halting A World With No Boundaries' mission. Anton and his unit were defeated by the mercenaries but proclaimed that the organization would "eliminate all borders" before his death.

The squadron arrived at Mund at 15:00hrs., exactly as a major air battle ensued between Anton's followers and the Osean Air Force, who intended to distract them so Galm could enter the facility. Flying through a heavily defended ravine, Cipher arrived at Avalon and dove inside the silo itself, destroying the V2's launch control systems as final preparations were being made for the firing of the missile. His actions ultimately prevented A World With No Boundaries from launching it.


"There's only one way, buddy. You've gotta fight for what you believe in."
― Larry Foulke

After the success of the operation, Cipher and his wingman were ordered by Eagle Eye to remain on standby over Avalon. At 15:10, his former wingman entered Mund Valley's airspace on board the ADFX-02 Morgan prototype to ensure the launch of the V2. He fired the jet's Tactical Laser System towards Cipher, but the beam hit PJ instead, killing him by slicing through his F-16's cockpit.

The two former wingmates then fought each other in a final duel over the skies of Avalon. Foulke used the Morgan's weapons to full effect, but lost his laser weapon and burst missiles to Cipher, who kept evading his attacks and damaging the experimental jet.

When his weapons had been lost, Pixy used the ADFX-02 to fire the V2 missile, forcing Cipher to try to stop him before the weapon reached the atmosphere. Learning that Larry had activated an electromagnetic defense system, he repeatedly struck him from the front in a fatal engagement reminiscent of medieval jousting.

The Morgan succumbed to battle damage and lost control, causing the V2 to self-destruct over Mund Valley. The battle led to the collapse of A World With No Boundaries' uprising, and put a permanent end to the Belkan War. Cipher returned to Valais with Eagle Eye, and disappeared from the skies months later.


"The Belkans then committed the unthinkable-- they used nuclear weapons on their own soil. Seeing this tragedy unfold before their own eyes, the victorious countries vowed to throw down their weapons. The world was once again at peace. And thanks to them, it seemed it would last forever. "
Albert Genette


The Belkan War led to the deaths of thousands of people, including those who perished after the nuclear explosions in the Waldreich Mountains. The disaster in the Waldreich Mountains led to a global reduction of the arms industry, and caused the Osean Federation to sign a peace treaty with Yuktobania in 1996 that put an end to the Cold War that existed between the two superpowers since the eighties.[12]

The Treaty of Lumen declared the dissolution of the Belkan Federation with the absorption of South Belka into Osea, which became the state of North Osea, leaving the north, dubbed the "Principality of Belka", as the country's sole legitimate territory. Waldemarr Rald's involvement in politics came to an end in 1996, when an investigation of pilot Lars Matthaus' radio logs led to the discovery of links between him and A World With No Boundaries, leading to his fall from grace in January of that year.[12]

The damages suffered during the war caused the disbandment of the Belkan Army, yet the Air Force survived to undergo reorganization with the direction of Lieutenant General Blauwelt of the 6th Air Division.[12] After the war, many soldiers abandoned Belka as exiles to various locations across the world. Lorenz Riedel, one of Anton Kupchenko's wingmen, fought for the Eastern Faction in the Estovakian Civil War in 2007, and provided them with classified data from Belkan research on heavy command cruiser technology, from which the P-1112 Aigaion was created.[19]


A major side effect of the assimilation of South Belka as Osea's seventh state was the transformation of the South Belka Munitions Factory into Gründer Industries, which operated under the jurisdiction of the Osean government. Formally known as "North Osea Gründer Industries", the company became a major weapons manufacturer in the global stage, producing high-end technology and aircraft for Osea and other countries. Its most famous product, the ADF-01 FALKEN, was produced from the remains of the ADFX-02. Similarly, the lack of pilots in Belka led to the creation of the "Zone of Endless" AI flight system.[12] Osea also began to restrict weapon exports from remaining weapons manufacturers within Belka.[20]

Despite the cessation of fighting in the Osean continent, the Belkan War ushered in an era of increased imperialism from both Yuktobania and Osea. The looming threat from both superpowers caused a group of nations from Usea to forget their internal quarrels and form an alliance. On 1998, the signing of a military pact between Osea and its allied nations triggered a continental uprising from the "Usean Rebel Forces", which led to a full-scale war spanning almost all of Usea.[21]




  • The in-game events of the Belkan War are heavily based on elements of World War II:
    • A country enduring economic hardship (Germany / Belka) militarizes and invades its neighbors (invasion of Poland / Invasion of Ustio).
    • The invaded countries form a military coalition (Allies / Allied Forces).
    • The war initially goes well for the invaders, but the tide turns when superpowers get involved (United States / Osea).
    • The invaders lose ground, and the Allies perform saturation bombing of their industrial facilities (bombing of Dresden / bombing of Hoffnung).
    • The war ends and the belligerents sign an agreement which heavily favors the superpowers and strips the invaders of their military power (Potsdam Agreement / Lumen peace treaty).